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 SPAIN

     
Spanish literature typically describes literature (Spanish poetry, prose, and dramatization) written in the Spanish language within the area that currently constitutes the state of Spain. Its growth corresponds as well as frequently intersects with that of various other literary traditions from regions within the same territory, specifically Catalan literary works, Galician intersects as well with Latin, Jewish, and Arabic literary practices of the Iberian peninsula. The literature of Spanish The U.S.A. is a vital branch of Spanish literature, with its very own specific characteristics going back to the earliest years of Spain's occupation of the Americas (see Latin American literature).

The Roman conquest as well as line of work of the Iberian peninsula beginning in the Third century BC brought a Latin culture to Spanish areas. The arrival of Muslim invaders in 711 CE brought the societies of the Center and also Far East. In Middle ages Spanish literature, the earliest recorded instances of a vernacular Romance-based literature mix Muslim, Jewish, and also Christian culture. One of the remarkable works is the epic Cantar de Mio Cid, composed in 1140. Spanish prose obtained appeal in the mid-thirteenth century. Lyric poetry in the Middle Ages includes preferred poems as well as the courtly verse of the nobles. During the 15th century the pre-Renaissance happened as well as literary manufacturing increased substantially. In the Renaissance important topics were verse, spiritual literature, and also prose. In the Baroque age of the 17th century essential jobs were the prose of Francisco de Quevedo and also Baltasar Gracián. A significant writer was Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, popular for his masterpiece Don Quixote de la Mancha.

In the Enlightenment age of the 18th century, notable works consist of the prose of Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijoo, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, and José Cadalso; the verse of Juan Meléndez Valdés, Tomás de Iriarte as well as Félix María Samaniego), as well as the movie theater, with Leandro Fernández de Moratín, Ramón de la Cruz and also Vicente García de la Huerta. In Romanticism (beginning of the 19th century) vital topics are: the poetry of José de Espronceda and also various other poets; prose; the movie theater, with Ángel de Saavedra (Fight it out of Rivas), José Zorrilla, and various other authors. In Realistic look (end of the 19th century), which is blended with Naturalism, important topics are the unique, with Juan Valera, José María de Pereda, Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Armando Palacio Valdés, as well as Vicente Blasco Ibáñez; poetry, with Ramón de Campoamor, Gaspar Núñez de Arce, and also various other poets; the cinema, with José Echegaray, Manuel Tamayo y Baus, and also various other dramatists; and also the literary doubters, stressing Menéndez Pelayo.

In Innovation a number of currents show up: Parnasianism, Symbolism, Futurism, and Creationism. The devastation of Spain's fleet in Cuba by the U.S. in 1898 provoked a crisis in Spain. A team of more youthful authors, amongst them Miguel de Unamuno, Pío Baroja, and José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín), made modifications to literary works's kind as well as web content. By the year 1914-- the year of the outbreak of the First World Battle and of the magazine of the first significant work of the generation's top voice, José Ortega y Gasset-- a number of slightly more youthful authors had actually established their own location within the Spanish cultural field. Leading voices consist of the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez, the academics as well as essayists Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Gregorio Marañon, Manuel Azaña, Eugeni d'Ors, and also Ortega y Gasset, and the writers Gabriel Miró, Ramón Pérez de Ayala, and also Ramón Gómez de la Serna. Around 1920 a more youthful team of authors-- mostly poets-- started releasing works that from their beginnings exposed the extent to which younger artists were taking in the literary experimentation of the authors of 1898 and also 1914. Poets were closely connected to formal academia. Writers such as Benjamín Jarnés, Rosa Chacel, Francisco Ayala, and also Ramón J. Sender were just as speculative and also academic.

The Spanish Civil Battle had a disastrous effect on Spanish writing. Among the handful of civil war poets as well as writers, Miguel Hernández attracts attention. Throughout the very early dictatorship (1939-- 1955), literary works complied with dictator Francisco Franco's reactionary vision of a second Spanish golden era. By the mid-1950s, just as with the novel, a brand-new generation which had just experienced the Spanish civil battle in youth was coming of age. By the early 1960s, Spanish authors moved towards a restless literary experimentation. When Franco died in 1975, the vital job of developing democracy had an immediate impact on Spanish letters. Over the next several years a wide range of young brand-new authors, amongst them Juan José Millás, Rosa Montero, Javier Marías, Luis Mateo Díez, José María Merino, Félix de Azúa, Cristina Fernández Cubas, Enrique Vila-Matas, Carme Riera, as well as later on Antonio Muñoz Molina and also Almudena Grandes, would begin carving out a prominent place for themselves within the Spanish cultural area.
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